E-ISSN: 2788-9327

P-ISSN: 1606-8947

Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022)

Publishing Rules and Table of Contents


Effect of nutrition of Urea, Biofertilizer Cerialien and Spraying by Macro Elements on the Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Sunflower plant. Helianthus annuus L. cv. Sakha53

Esmat Omar Abdullah, Eman Najm Al-Deen Muhammed

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 115-130



     This study was conducted on Sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) with the aim of studying the effect of adding Urea and Cerialine fertilizers and spraying with major elements NPK 10 % on morphological and physiological characteristics of cultivar (Sakha 53) growing in plastic bags in the greenhouse in the Biology Department, Faculty of Education, Aden during the season 2018/2019-2019/2020.

    The most important results obtained can be summarized as follows:

 -Sunflower plants, cultivar (Sakha 53), responded to the biological and the morphological indicators (plant length, stem diameter and number of leaves) showed significant differences between the studied treatments and Physiological growth indicators of dry matter accumulation (leaf area LA (m2), representation efficiency NAR, and relative velocity of crop growth RGR) significantly were affected by the addition of biological and mineral fertilizers in all the reading of these traits at 30-45,45-60, and 60-75. where the treatment of the combined treatment with Cerialine 75g/kg seeds with mineral fertilizer spraying (NPK10%), was significantly surpassed to the other treatments. It gave the highest averages of the values of these indictors, while all the treatments had significant effect during the growth seasons 2018/2019 and 2019/2020.

 -The effect of adding biological and mineral fertilizer was significant on the characteristics of chemical analysis of leaf components of chlorophyll (A), chlorophyll(B), total chlorophyll, seed content of protein and crude oil. Biological fertilizer Cerialine treatment at a rate of 75g/kg seed as a single treatment or with mineral spraying with major mineral elements at 10% concentration was significantly superior, compared to untreated control and some other treatment, and it gave the highest values for chemical analysis properties of leaves and seeds during the first and second growing seasons.

Effect of the addition of biological and chemical fertilizers on (Sorghum bicolor L.) plants grown in saline soils in the Musabain area, Aden

Esmat Omar Abdullah, Nader Mustafa Abdullatif

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 131-142



     This study was conducted on sorghum crop (sorghum bicolor L.) Alhaiq cultivar to assess the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on morphological growth characteristics and vegetative content of mineral elements of crop plants growing in the area of Musabaine, Aden governorate, on clay- silts soils where the rate of electrical conductivity increases by 1.4 mm/cm.This study was carried out using randomized complete block design with four replications. The experiment included six treatments (i.e. phosphorous, nutropin, and microbial containing bacteria stabilizing air nitrate and facilitating phosphorene absorption from the soil, two types of chemical fertilizers: urea containing 46% N and superphosphate containing 46% P2O5 , in addition to untreated control (without addition). Main results obtained can be summarized as follows:

  • Sorghum plants responded to the added rates of biological and chemical fertilizers. Different treatments showed significant differences compared to untreated control (without addition) in growth indicators (plant length, stem thickness, number of leaves , leaf area LA (m2) ) and the two biological fertilization treatments as nutropin at the rate of 55 g / kg seeds and the chemical fertilization treatment an average of 60 kg N + 25 kg P2O5 / hectare over the other studied parameters and gave the highest values of growth characteristics in both two seasons study 2018-2019 and 2019-2020.

Addition of biological and chemical fertilizers led to a significant effect among study treatments on characteristics of plant leaves and stems mineral content of elements and compounds studied for the characteristics (percentage of protein and leaf content of chlorophyll A, B and total chlorophyll) as well as the ratio of mineral elements to both nitrogen, phosphorene and potassium in leaves. Biological fertilization treatment nutropin and phosphorene and chemical fertilization treatment of 60kg N + 25 P2O5 gave the highest values ​​in plant leaves and stems mineral content of the studied plants, while all treatments were surpassed compared to untreated control (without addition) during both seasons of study.

Effect of storing period on vitality of some sorghum varieties seeds Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench

Yasser AL-Khater Nasser Hussen, Hudi Ahmed Mohsen Abdollah

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 143-149



     The examination of this experiment was achieved during two season (2019/2020,2020/2021) in the  Food and After-harvest technicality Center Laboratory in  Khawrmaksar, Aden.  to knowing the effecting fungi and the period of strong  on  the activity of cultivais  of  Sorghum bicolor seeds (Sanisalah, Bini) The laboratory tests were done after 3,6,9,12months for two planting  season and the results has been analysed  by using the  factorial experiment conducted  four times for each operation. The results indicated that the percentage of seed germination was reduced as the storing period ertendcd after (3)months (%96.36,%96.70) respectively, (6)months (%93.83,%93.97) respectively,(9) months (%92.90,%92.91) respectively ,(12) months, and became (%91.86,%%91.96 respectively during the first season, then in the second season, it was,97.60% ,94.80% respectively, after 3 months, 95.70%,95.98% respectively, after 6 months respectively, 94.50% ,94.70 % respectively after 9 months , 92.90% ,92.90 respectively after 12 months.  

Intestinal parasites among children in Lahj Governorate, Yemen

Sherine Yahya Saeed Hizam, Khaled Nasher Qahtan

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 153-166



     Intestinal parasites are considered one of the microbes that cause various diseases for humans all over the world. This study was conducted on stool samples of children suffering from abdominal symptoms and attending some laboratories of public hospitals and some private laboratories in some districts of Lahaj governorate. The study included children whose ages ranged from 2-14 years who were suspected of being infected with intestinal parasites and who were suffering from digestive symptoms such as diarrhea. To determine the prevalence of some types of intestinal parasites. 825 stool samples were collected during the time period from January to December 2020. The study samples were examined using the macroscopic and microscopy examination methods.

    The results showed that the total infection rate with intestinal parasites was about 52,49%. It also showed that males are more affected than females as the rate of male infection was (53.96%), and the percentage of female infection was 50.98%. Nine types of intestinal parasites were recorded and divided into two groups. The first group included protozoa, where the highest rate of infection of Entamoeba histolytica was recorded (37,64%), followed by Giardia lamblia with an infection rate of (28,87%), different types of amoebae spp., with a percentage of 5.08%, and  Cryptosporidium spp., with 1.62%. The second group of parasites are worms it and included Ascaris lumbricoides with a percentage of 13.63%, pinworms Enterobius vermicularis with a percentage of 7.85%, then Hymenolepis nana with a percentage of 4.39%, followed by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura and the bovine tapeworm Tinea saginata with a percentage of 00. 46% for each of them. The results also showed that the highest infection rate was recorded in May, with the infection rate reaching 76.34%, while the lowest infection rate was 10.53 percent in December. The results of the study also showed that the age group (8-10 years) was the most infected, with a percentage of 95.1%, and the age group (12-14 years) was the least infected, with intestinal parasites by 35.63%. The infection rate in rural areas was 56.61 percent, higher than the rate of infection in urban areas, (48.99 percent) and the rate of single injury was 73,44%, which is the highest of the rest of the injuries.

   Stool samples collected from children showed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites and, therefore, necessary measures, such as health education, awareness creation and medical care, especially among children, should be taken to mitigate these infections. We recommend the Yemeni Ministry of Health to do its duty by making use of this research and working with its recommendations.

Succulent flora in Al-Aeen Valley- Lawder District- Abyan Governorate-Yemen-Survey Study

Yasser AL- kther Nasser, Mohammed A. Hussein, Mahmood A. Al-Mysery

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 169-178



      Field survey was done during the period 2021/2022 for Al-Aeen valley called (AL-Feeth). It is considered as one of the moderate high areas of Abyan Governorate. This valley is located in the south of Lawder town approximately10Km far.

    During the Field survey, 48 species belonging to 22 genera within (15) families were documented.

    For geographical region of succulent in the area of the study, the endemic species were 5 forming 10.42%  in the area of study, The species that belong to Yemen, Saudi  Arabia and Oman were 15species  forming 31.25% ,The other species which belong to the Arabia  Peninsula and  Africa (Sudan region) were 28 species forming 58.3% percentage.

A comparative morphological study of pods and seed of some taxonomic units of the genus Acacia in Toor Al- Baha District, Lahj Gov., Yemen

Esam Mohammed Kassem, Ali Al-sayed Hamed, Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 179-192



      The aim of this investigation is to study the morphological characters of pod and seeds of 9 taxa belonging to the genus Acacia, collected from Toor Al- Baha District. Lahj Gov., Yemen. The Morphological studies of the pod and seed showed many different characters among the studied taxa, and exhibited interesting variations that was of significance for the identification and differentiation between the studied taxa.

    The results showed two, one is based on the morphological of Pods and the Second is on the morphological characters of seeds.

Protective effect of aqueous crude extract of leaves Aloe vacillans and Yemeni honey (soumr) against CCl4 – induced hepatic damage in male Rabbits

Mohammed Ali Qassem

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 193-200



     The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of honey and Aqueous crude extract of leaves Aloe vacillans  on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- induced hepatotxicity in rabbits.

Hepatotoxicity was induced in rabbits by intraperitoneal injection of (CCl4) 0.2 ml/kg of body weight on day 19, 20 and  21.  The aqueous crude extract of Aloe vacillans leaves were administrated at dose 100 mg, 300 mg and 500 mg/kg of body weight pass orally ( p.o) daily for 28 days. The hepatotoxicity was induced in rabbits by intraperitoneal injection of (CCl4) 0.2 ml/kg of body weight on day 19, 20 and  21.

The honey were administrated at dose 500 mg/kg of body weight pass orally (p.o) daily for 28 days. The hepatotoxicity was induced in rabbits by intraperitoneal injection of (CCl4) 0.2 ml/kg of body weight on day 19, 20 and  21.                             

    The hepatotoxicity and its prevention was assessed by serum parameters like alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin (Bil) and total  protein (T.P). In CCl4 treated rabbits, a significant, increasing the in (ALT) ,(AST) , bilirubin and a decreasg the total protein levels were shown at (p<0.05), due to liver damage, when compared with normal group.

     Treatment with the aqueous extract of Aloe vacillans could significantly decrease the (ALT),(AST) and bilirubin, increased T.P in serum at p< 0.05 when compared with CCl4 –treated group.Treatment honey at dose (500 mg/kg) could significantly decrease the (ALT),(AST) and bilirubin, increased T.P in serum at p< 0.05 when compared with CCl4 –treated group and the aqueous extract of aloe treated groups.

     The data suggested that oral administration of Honey and aqueous extract of the leaves of  Aloe vacillans at dose (500 mg/kg) significantly decreases the intensity of hepatic damage induced by CCl4 in rabbits.  

Intestinal Protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia ) and their effect on some Hematological Parameters in Al-Manssora Hospitals, Aden, Yemen

Arwa Mohammed Mohammed Al-Mansup, Khaled Nasher Khatan

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 201-212



     Intestinal protozoa are among the organisms that cause diseases in various countries of the world, especially poor countries. Six hundred and three  stool samples were collected from patients coming to  some hospitals in Mansoura District (22 May Hospital, Cuban Hospital, Al-Naqeeb Hospital, Al Salam Hospital), and blood samples were taken from 384 patients of both sexes infected with intestinal protozoa (E. histolytica, Giardia lamblia)  and 21 blood samples from non-infected people.

      The results of the current study showed that the total infection rate of intestinal protozoa (E. histolytica, G. lamblia) was 603/384 (63.68%). For blood picture tests, a decrease in haemoglobine values and an increase in the total number of white blood cells and Eosinophils were observed for the affected people. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rate of E. histolytica and G. lamblia and its effect on some hematological parameters in some hospitals in Al-Mansoura District of Aden Governorate (Yemen).

     We recommend raising the level of health by providing educational programs and paying attention to personal hygiene in order to reduce the incidence of parasites, activate the role of health institutions, and work to combat rodents and insects to cut off the parasite life cycle.

Performance evaluation of MANET routing protocols under DDOS attacks

Khaled Ahmed Abood Omer

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 215-225



     Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) consist of a set of communicating wireless mobile nodes or devices that could be deployed without the need for pre-established infrastructure for communication. Due to the insecure wireless communication medium and dynamic behavior of the nodes in MANETs, routing protocols are vulnerable to various security attacks, such as distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks. DDOS attacks are used to temporarily disable network services by overloading the target system with huge traffic, such that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic.

In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the Ad hoc on demand vector (AODV), Temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA), Geographic routing protocol (GRP), and optimized link state routing (OLSR) routing protocols in MANETs under the DDOS attacks. These routing protocols are simulated using OPNET simulator to compare their performance using specific performance metrics on the network. The experimental results show that TORA protocol performs better than the AODV, OLSR, and GRP protocols under the DDOS attack.

A Review on RGB Image Steganography based on Spatial Domain

Mohsen Hassan A. Hashem, Salah Eldin Deng Aljack, Omaima Abdulaziz Bahaidara

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 227-238



     Steganography is not only the method to hide the message content but the message itself. [3]. So, “The importance of steganography lies as it hides the existence of the secret message which makes the job of attacker more difficult” [7]

     This research paper presents PSNR results from different image steganography techniques such as Least Significant Bits (LSB), Most Significant Bits (MSB), Triple A algorithm, X-Box Mapping and Mod Factor method.

    Execute these experimentally using VS 2017 (by C#) with 12 colored images and 6 different secret message lengths then conclude that the Mod Factor method gives good quality image with  the highest PSNR and free error extracted secret message at receiver. 

Management of abdominal Trauma at Al-Gamhouria General Modern Hospital-Aden-Yemen

Gamal M. Khuda Bux, Nasser Ahmed Abdulla Harhra, Intsar Mohamed Al khader

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 241-249



     Abdominal injury is relatively common in both civilian and military casualties and isa leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of abdominal traumaو to evaluate its impact on the intraperitoneal and Retroperitoneum organs, and to evaluate various modalities of management and its outcome.

    This is a prospective study conducted at Al-Gamhouria Modern General Hospital, from 1stJanuary 2013 up to 31stDecember 2014. This study involved 70 patients whowerediagnosed as abdominal trauma and admitted to the hospital during the study period. Data were collectedfrom the patients by their clinical history, examination and appropriate investigations. Male patients were predominantly more than female, 65 (92.9%) vs.5 (7.1%). Abdominal trauma involved young people with the mean age of31.3 ± 13.9 years; most of them were from Aden. Penetrating injuries were more prevalent compared to blunt injuries, as the mode of injury was mostly due to gunshots. The most frequently injured abdominal organ was small bowel.Complications occurred in 25(35.7%) patients. Woundinfection was the most common complications.Operative intervention was the treatmentoption for most patients with abdominal trauma.

Gender difference among newly reported HIV patients attending HIV center- Alsadqa teaching hospital - Aden

Reema Khaled Al-Horaibi

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 251-255



     Gender is a clear contributor to disease pathogenesis in multiple infectious diseases.There were different studies identifying that effect of biological sex are challenging,work to date has yielded important insights. HIV disease progression and clinical manifestations differ among women and men because of biological and socioeconomic factors. This is a descriptive prospective study, the main objectives of study is identify sex difference among newly reported HIV patients attending HIV Center at AlsadqaTeaching Hospital Aden, from 1st January 2021 to 31stJan 2022.
Most of the patients were males with 74.6% andthe mean age was 38.79 ± 10.38 in stage 4 with 28.6% and death were 7.9%, while female mean were younger age 32.44 ± 8.23.
From this study, we conclude that male patients were the most common attendant to HIV Center but in late stage 4, with heigh mortality in comparison to female.

Comparative assessment of natural radionuclides content of cement products from Assiut cement factories, Egypt

Maher Taher Hussein, Najat O. A. Al-Salahi, Mohamed Hasabelnaaby

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 259-272



    Cement industry is one of the basic industries that play an important role in the national economy of developing countries. In this study, a comparison between cement products from factories on Assiut, Egypt (Assiut Cement Company (ACC) & Building Materials Industry Company (BMIC)) was presented to evaluate their radiological impact on human health as building materials. Activity concentration of 226Ra 232Th, and 40K in different types of cement products were collected from both factories has been measured using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The results indicated that a highest activity concentration from ACC was from the Portland cement where the lowest was SRC cement. In BMIC, the SRC cement activity concentration was almost similar with Portland cement activity concentration. The range of radionuclide concentrations in the all cement products for both factories were found to be lower than the world average limits (50, 50,500 Bq/Kg) for 226Ra 232Th and 40K respectively in building materials. For estimating radiation hazard indices, the radium equivalent, external and internal hazard indexes, Representative level index (Iγr), annual effective dose, the absorbed dose rate and excess lifetime cancer risk were considered. All of them were found below the acceptable limits. Therefore, this study confirmed that all cement samples from ACC & BMIC are radiologically safe to be used as building materials, with no significant impact of radiological hazards provided.

Enhancement in microstructural and optical properties of thermally evaporated CdTe/CdSe heterojunction thin Films

Mehdi Ahmad Dabban, Abdel-naser A. M. Alfaqeer

University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 2 (2022), 31 October 2022, Page 273-284



     The optimization of microstructural and optical properties of a thin layer is an important step prior device fabrication process, so an enhancement in these properties of thermally evaporated CdTe/CdSe thin films was reported in this work. We choose to research (CdSe) materials as a n-type absorber layer in the CdTe/CdSe heterojunction thin film. The Effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdTe/CdSe Heterojunction thin films was studied, using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Double-beam computer-controlled spectrophotometer in the wavelength between 200 nm and 2500 nm. Diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the as-prepared films were amorphous nature, whereas the annealed films were polycrystalline. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy investigations. It was found that the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity of the studied films depend on the annealing temperature. Furthermore the optical measurement shows that this treatment shifts the optical absorption edge at low energy and decreases the optical band gap from 1.92 eV, to 1.37eV while the values Urbach energy increase as the annealing temperature increased from 300 K to 433 K. As consequence is that the heat treatment improves the quality of the CdTe/CdSe heterojunction thin films for the potential use in photovoltaic applications.